I'm cheating a bit, this 2D image is not a hand drawing or even a result of a vector artwork program like Adobe Illustrator. This is a "procedural material" that renders my version of the Indian head from the old TV test patterns.
The 3D program Animation:Master has something called "combiners" that make patterns with a pair of colors. Among those are "spherical" and "grid" combiners and by combining those in various ways it is possible slice and dice them and get results quite different from the more usual uses of procedural materials, such as creating a wood grain texture.
It's not the easiest way to make an image like that, nor the best, but I just tried it as a demo of how far one could go with "combiners".
Here's the Indian Head in place. The test pattern is also procedural materials.